Glossary

A

active track

AXIS OS features different firmware tracks depending on your needs. The active track provides access to the newest state-of-the-art features and functionalities, including bug fixes and security patches. In other words, in the active track, we focus on continuous software development. In the long-term support (LTS) track, we don’t add any new features. The focus is to improve cybersecurity and stability.

alarm overlay

Alarm overlay is a type of metadata overlay. An alarm overlay is used in recorded and live video to draw the operator's attention to things that happen in a scene, such as an individual who lingered in a specific area too long. An alarm overlay can consist of different elements, but typically it includes a bounding box that appears or changes color when the alarm is triggered.

API

Through our AXIS camera application platform (ACAP), you also have access to a long list of tested, well-documented application program interfaces (APIs). These APIs are optimized for Axis devices and let you take full advantage of Axis hardware and software. Together with software development kits (SDKs) based on open-source components, they facilitate interoperability, scalability, and easy migration of your apps to execute on Axis devices.

artificial intelligence (AI)

A broad concept used to label manufactured machines, computers, systems, and software that solve complex tasks while demonstrating seemingly intelligent traits. Deep learning and machine learning are subsets of AI.

Auto-iris

A type of iris, which is electrically controlled by the camera, to automatically regulate the amount of light allowed to enter.

AXIS Camera Application Platform (ACAP)

A framework for added functionality and intelligence at the edge. ACAP allows users to download and install Axis and third-party applications in Axis products.

Axis Secure Remote Access

Axis Secure Remote Access is a technology that allows a smartphone or PC client to access Axis network cameras when the client and the cameras are located on different local networks. Axis Secure Remote Access significantly simplifies the installation of remote access to surveillance systems. Once enabled, it’s automatically configured and removes the need for manual port-forwarding and router configuration.

B

barrel distortion correction (BDC)

Barrel distortion correction (BDC) is a lens correction that digitally corrects barrel distortion, where the image of a square object has sides that curve out. Using sliders, users can pull the edges of the image to make the image appear flat rather than curved.

bounding box

A bounding box is a type of metadata. A bounding box can help the operator to detect important details or draw the operator's attention to what happens in the scene.

C

computer vision

The discipline of using algorithms to analyze images and videos to help computers understand and interpret what's happening in a scene.

corridor format

Corridor format is a feature that lets users turn the camera view 90 degrees to give a vertical view (portrait) at, for example, 9:16 ratio rather than a horizontal view (landscape) at, for example, 16:9 ratio. With corridor format, you can use the full view of the camera to overlook narrow scenes such as retail store aisles, highways and freeways, school hallways, and train station platforms.

D

day-night functionality

Sometimes referred to as day/night functionality. A camera with day-and-night functionality can pick up light in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range and produce images. In cameras with true day-and-night functionality, the IR-blocking filter is mechanically removed at night. As a result, the camera's overall light sensitivity is increased. Cameras of all shapes and sizes (such as fixed, fixed dome, and PTZ cameras) can offer day-and-night functionality. 

DC-iris

A type of iris, which is electrically controlled by the camera, to automatically regulate the amount of light allowed to enter.

deep learning (DL)

A refined version of machine learning that uses so-called convolutional neural networks to process data. The algorithm learns to extract and combine features in a data-driven manner. DL is suitable for complex challenges, such as image classification, language processing, and object detection, where it's difficult to write rules to describe the solution. Instead, the deep learning network is trained iteratively using numerous examples, which usually have been labeled by a human expert.

deep learning processing unit (DLPU)

An umbrella term for integrated chipsets designed for deep learning algorithms. In other words, DLPUs are AI accelerators integrated on application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC) or systems-on-chip (SoC) with data memory and architecture dedicated to accelerating deep-learning inference, allowing for more granular object classification.

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a protocol for automatic assignment and management of IP addresses.

digital signal processor (DSP)

A digital signal processor is an audio processor that provides advanced sound compensation, which optimizes the sound to fit specific scenarios. In Axis network speakers, several sound optimization techniques such as frequency optimization, loudness compensation, and dynamic range control are built into the speakers themselves to deliver better audio quality in any environment. 

E

echo cancellation

Devices with echo cancellation can recognize sounds that the built-in loudspeaker produces as echoes and remove them.

Edge Vault

Axis Edge Vault is a secure cryptogenic compute module (secure module or secure element) in which the Axis device ID is securely and permanently installed and stored.

edge-to-edge

Edge-to-edge technology is a way to make IP devices communicate directly with each other. It offers smart pairing functionality between Axis network cameras and Axis audio products such as network speakers, audio bridges, and amplifiers.

electronic image stabilization (EIS)

Electronic image stabilization (EIS) provides smooth video in situations where a camera is subject to vibrations. Built-in gyroscopic sensors continuously detect the camera’s movements and vibrations, and they automatically adjust the frame to ensure you always capture the details you need. Electronic image stabilization relies on different algorithms for modeling camera motion, which are used to correct the images.

EMC

All electronic devices release electromagnetic energy. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) approvals are based on two parts: emission and immunity. Emission refers to the ability of electronic equipment to function satisfactorily without emitting too much electromagnetic energy that can disturb other equipment in that environment. Immunity refers to the ability of electronic equipment to tolerate the influence of electromagnetic energy from other electronic products.

EMS

Evidence management systems and evidence management software are both abbreviated EMS. Both terms are associated with body worn cameras. An evidence management system comprises the whole solution of integrated hardware, software, and storage. Evidence management software manages recordings and metadata from body worn cameras.

event triggers

In Axis products, an event trigger is typically a detector of digital signals, audio signals, or physical events such as movements or a change in light. Users can set up rules for what should happen when one or more triggers are met. Usually, the word trigger is sufficient, and the word event can be left out. In newer Axis software and products, we use the term condition instead of trigger.

explosion protected

When a camera is installed in a potentially explosive environment, such as chemical processing plants, or gas pipelines, its housing must meet very specific safety standards. It is the explosive environment that must be protected from potential igniters from the camera and other equipment. If the camera is explosion protected, it means that it will contain any explosion originating within its housing. Sometimes this capability is referred to as explosion-proof.

F

focus recall

Focus recall is a feature that allows you to save focus areas to which the PTZ camera automatically returns when it moves into that view. This feature is especially useful in challenging lighting conditions, where the camera would have trouble finding focus. To use focus recall, you click a button when you’re satisfied with the focus of the current view, and the camera creates a focus recall area. Later, the camera automatically recalls the previously set focus for that view.

frame rate

The frame rate is the frequency at which a video stream is updated. We measure frame rate in frames per second (fps). When there's movement in the video stream, you need a high frame rate to maintain good video quality.

frequency response

The frequency response is the frequency range that a system (or any part of it) can respond to.

full duplex

Transmission of data in two directions simultaneously, such as in a telephone conversation.

G

gatekeeper

Gatekeeper is an analytics feature that makes the camera react to movement and move to that position automatically. After a few seconds of inactivity, the camera returns to its home position. Typically, the gatekeeper is used to monitor a gate or a specific area. The gatekeeper can also trigger other actions (such as reading a license plate or recording video) in the same camera, in other cameras, or in the VMS.

H

half duplex

Transmission of data in two directions, in one direction at a time, as in a walkie-talkie system.

I

i-CS lens

An i-CS lens is an intelligent CS-mount lens that allows for quick and easy installation. The i-CS lens has three motors, which enable automatic and remote control of generic features such as zoom, focus, and aperture. This way, you can repurpose the lens for different cameras and use cases.

IEEE 802.1x

A network protocol that protects the network from unauthorized clients. The network infrastructure is protected through the use of managed switches and RADIUS servers. The 802.1x client in the device authenticates the device on the network.

IK rating

IK ratings specify degrees of protection against external mechanical impact, measured in joules. The degree of protection ranges from IK01 up to IK10. The requirements, which include parameters for impact energy, mass, and drop height  are specified in the international standard IEC/EN 62262. See also IK08/IK10.

IK08/IK10

IK ratings are defined as a code, which consists of the letters IK followed by two digits that represent testing requirements on impact energy, mass, and drop height.

IK08 rated products are protected against 5 joules of impact, the equivalent of 1.7 kg dropped from 300 mm above the product.
IK10 rated products are protected against 20 joules of impact, the equivalent of 5 kg dropped from 400mm above the product.

image sensor

An image sensor is a device that captures light and converts it into digital signals to form an image. The image sensor consists of photosensitive diodes, photosites, which converts the light into electrons. The electrons are, through several conversions, interpreted as pixels. Once an image is formed, it’s sent for processing in a stage that determines, among other things, the colors of each individual pixel that make up an image.

intelligent audio

A set of smart features built into our speakers. It enables boundless integration possibilities and includes, for example, sensors, digital signal processing (DSP), and audio management software.

IP rating

Electric and electronic equipment deteriorate or malfunction when water or dust enters the device. The IEC has developed the ingress protection (IP) ratings, which grade the resistance of an enclosure against the intrusion of dust or liquids. The ratings are widely used throughout industry. See also IP66/IP67.

IP66/IP67

IP 66: An IP classification for dust tightness and protection against powerful water jets.
IP 67: An IP classification for dust tightness and protection against brief immersion in water.

IPv4/IPv6

Together, with TCP, the  Internet Protocol is the principal protocol in most of today's networked applications. For a server to operate on the internet, it must have its own, individual, public IP address. There are two versions, IPv4 and IPv6, where IPv4 still provides the majority of the service today. The main difference between the two is the size of the address space, which is substantially larger in IPv6.

L

Lightfinder

An Axis technology which delivers high-resolution, full color video with a minimum of motion blur even in near darkness.

 

Low Voltage Directive (2014/35/EU)

The low-voltage directive provides broad objectives for the safety of electrical equipment. It ensures that products are safe to use without risk of personal injury or property damage. It's valid for the EU, and it's included in the CE mark.

LTS track, long-term support track

AXIS OS features different firmware tracks. In the long-term support (LTS) track, we don’t add any features. The focus is to improve cybersecurity and stability. In the active track, we continue to add features in addition to improving on cybersecurity and stability. If the firmware track has the features you need, we recommend that you choose the LTS track. 

M

machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence (AI) that allows computers to build their own logic for making predictions and determinations. Machine learning algorithms are either supervised or unsupervised. Without machine learning, a computer needs humans to create algorithms.

machine learning processing unit (MLPU)

An umbrella term for integrated chipsets designed for machine learning algorithms. In other words, MLPUs are AI accelerators integrated on application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC) or systems-on-chip (SoC) with data memory and architecture dedicated to machine learning.

mDNS (Bonjour)

Multicast DNS is a protocol that can be used to discover network video products using Mac computers, but it can also be used as a discovery protocol for new devices in any network.

MQTT

Message Queuing Telemetry Transport is a standard messaging protocol for the internet of things (IoT). It was designed for simplified IoT integration and is used in a wide variety of industries to connect remote devices while leaving a small code footprint and requiring minimal network bandwidth.

N

NEMA 4X

National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is a US-based association that provides standards for electrical equipment enclosures. NEMA 4X is equivalent to IP56 and provides a degree of protection of the equipment, inside the enclosure, against the ingress of solid foreign objects, the ingress of splashing or hose-directed water, the forming of ice, and corrosion.

NEMA rating

The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is a US-based association that provides standards for electrical equipment enclosures. NEMA has launched their own standard NEMA 250 worldwide. NEMA has also adopted and published a harmonizing IP standard, ANSI/IEC 60529, through the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

O

ONVIF

Open Network Video Interface Forum (ONVIF) provides and promotes standardized interfaces for effective interoperability of IP-based physical security products. ONVIF is a registered trademark.

OptimizedIR

Axis OptimizedIR provides a unique and powerful combination of camera intelligence and sophisticated LED technology, resulting in our most advanced camera-integrated IR solutions for complete darkness. In our pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras with OptimizedIR, the IR beam automatically adapts and becomes wider or narrower as the camera zooms in and out to make sure that the entire field of view is always evenly illuminated.

OSDP

The Open Supervised Device Protocol (OSDP) is an access control communications standard developed by the Security Industry Association (SIA) to improve interoperability among access control and security products.

OSI reference model

A coneptual model that describes data communication between open systems. The model consists of seven layers. To provide a service, each layer uses the services of the layer immediately below it. Each layer must follow certain rules, or protocols, to perform services.

P

P-iris

P-Iris is an automatic and precise iris control developed by Axis. It involves a P-Iris lens and specialized software that optimize image quality.

PBX

PBX is short for private branch exchange. It’s a telephone system within an enterprise that switches calls between users on local lines while allowing all those users to share a certain number of external phone lines. This way, you don't have to set up individual external phone lines for each user.

PoE class

PoE classes ensure efficient power distribution by specifying the amount of power that a powered device will require.

portcast

A concept (unique to Axis) for adding connectivity to Axis cameras. An interface box between the camera and switch provides the ports and adds a communication layer on top of the network.

R

reader

A reader is a device that can decode the information contained in a magnetic strip or microchip.

RFID

RFID is short for radio-frequency identification. It’s an identification technology that uses radio signals, (i.e., the electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum) to identify an object, an animal, or a person. 

S

scene profiles

A scene profile consists of a group of settings that are combined in a way that suits a particular scenario. When the user selects a scene profile, the camera automatically optimizes the exposure time, white balance, aperture, sharpness, contrast, and noise to suit that scenario.

SDK

Our AXIS Camera Application Platform (ACAP) allows you to install plugin-style apps on your Axis devices. This way, you can customize the feature set of your Axis devices and systems while maintaining a high degree of interoperability and scalability. The application programming interfaces (APIs) and ACAP software development kits (SDKs) are based on open-source components and support developers, at Axis and partner companies alike, in creating apps for a vast array of scenarios. 

Secure boot

A boot process that consists of an unbroken chain of cryptographically validated software, starting in immutable memory (boot ROM). Being based on the use of signed firmware, secure boot ensures that a device can boot only with authorized firmware.

SFP slot

A slot for a small form-factor pluggable (SFP) transceiver. This type of transceiver supplies network devices, such as a switches or routers, with a fiber optic network connection.

sharpdome

The sharpdome feature offers innovative mechanics that make the entire dome rotate, in contrast to a conventional dome where the camera rotates inside the dome. Pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras with sharpdome are versatile, with a field of view that extends above the camera horizon. This means that refractions and other optical effects are kept to a minimum.

signed firmware

Signed firmware is implemented by the software vendor signing the firmware image with a private key, which is secret. When firmware has this signature attached to it, a device will validate the firmware before accepting and installing it. If the device detects that the firmware integrity is compromised, it will reject the firmware upgrade. Axis signed firmware is based on the industry-accepted RSA public-key encryption method.

simplex

Transmission of data in one direction only, such as from a camera to the operator. 

SIP

The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a protocol that initiates, maintains, and terminates multimedia sessions between different parties. Usually, these sessions consist of audio, but sometimes they consist of video. The most common applications of SIP include internet telephony for voice and video calls and instant messaging over IP networks.

sound pressure

Sound pressure level (SPL) is an objective measure of sound loudness. SPL is used to describe how loud a sound a product is producing. The higher the SPL, the louder the sound. It is a reference level, where 0 dBSPL equals the threshold of hearing, 120–140 dBSPL is painful, and 140 dBSPL equals irreparable hearing damage. To get the SPL, you measure the atmospheric pressure caused by a sound wave over a specified period of time. It's expressed in dBSPL.

supervised input

A supervised input, or supervised I/O, allows you to detect tampering in external alarm systems. Beyond the active or inactive state, it's possible to detect if the wire has been cut or shortened.

T

TCP/IP

Short for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A reference  model used to understand protocols and how communication takes place. The model consists of four layers, which correspond to the seven layers in the OSI model. Each layer must follow certain rules, or protocols, to perform services.

TPM

TPM is short for Trusted Platform Module. A TPM is a component that provides a set of cryptographic features suitable for protecting information from unauthorized access. The private key is stored in the TPM and never leaves the TPM. All cryptographic operations requiring the use of the private key are sent to the TPM to be processed. This ensures that the secret part of the certificate remains safe even in the event of a security breach. 

two-way audio

Two-way audio (also known as duplex audio) is a feature that allows Axis devices to both pick up and broadcast sound. For example, if you have an IP camera with two-way audio, you can both see and hear what's going on on your premises and, if the need arises, speak with visitors or intruders in real-time.

U

UPnP

Universal Plug and Play is a protocol that allows Microsoft operating systems to automatically detect resources on a network.

V

VAPIX

VAPIX is a registered trademark and our own open application programming interface (API). It enables the integration of our products into a wide range of solutions and platforms.

Varifocal lens

A varifocal lens provides a wide range of focal lengths, as opposed to a lens with a fixed focal length, which only provides one. 

VMS

Video management software (VMS) is a central part of video management and is used to monitor, analyze, and record video from video encoders and network cameras.

voice enhancer

An algorithm that amplifies voice content relative to other sounds with the purpose of making speech more perceptible.

VoIP

VoIP is short for voice over IP. It’s a group of technologies that enables voice communication and multimedia sessions over IP networks.

W

wide dynamic range WDR

Axis cameras with wide dynamic range (WDR) technology make the difference between seeing important forensic details clearly and seeing nothing but a blur in challenging light conditions. Scenes with dark and bright areas spell trouble for image usability and clarity. This contrast in lighting is referred to as a wide dynamic range or a high dynamic range. Our WDR technology is more capable of handling these difficult lighting conditions, allowing you to place your cameras more freely.